Shotgun Movements – by Jamie Bolton

It’s 2012. The apocalyptic events predicted by religion and popular media are running riot. The 12 Horsemen, Solar storms, magnetic pole reversals, you name it. It’s happening.What’s worse, a crazed gunman has roamed into the Elite Kinetics Performance Facility and is now holding a shotgun to my temple.

The world may be ending, but worse yet is the EK team held hostage....

“Tell me the secrets. Give me the answers. What movements should I be doing?”

To top it off, it appears he’s got a limited brainspan and can only remember five, yes five, movements in total.

“I want to build a lean, muscular physique, but I won’t use more than five movements.”

I’m usually loathe to pick favourites as everything has its time and its place in a program. Well maybe except bosu-ball dumbbell presses amongst other retarded movements, but you get the picture.

These have no place in any program

But this guy does have a shotgun to my head, so I’m inclined to do what he asks!In the all encompassing field that is strength training, I try to pick movements that are just that. With these 5 movements I am trying to address all the key qualities this guy needs to be developing in order to meet his goals:
1. Strength
2. Power
3. Hypertrophy
4. Conditioning

Finally, we need to address all the key movement patterns and structures in the body, otherwise we are going to end up with some seriously unbalanced development over time. I don’t want our armed friend here to come back and complain!

So this is what I’d prescribe:

1. Complexes

A complex is a series of exercises performed with a barbell back to back without letting go of the bar. I’m slightly cheating here as it is technically more than one exercise, but since it’s continuous, I’m counting them as one! There are many ways of setting these up, but my favorite is the JB Complex.

You can set these up in as many ways you can imagine really. I wrote more here recently on the beauty of complexes if you want to see a bigger list of their benefits.

2. Trap Bar Deadlifts

Possibly the uncrowned king of the lower body exercises.  It gives the benefits of both the squat and conventional deadlift without the drawbacks of both. The squat is a great lower body movement, but since the bar is placed across the upper back, upper body involvement is well, limited. In contrast, the conventional deadlift gets far more upper body involvement, but the weight distribution often leads to temptation for form to weaken and lower backs to round.

From a cost-benefit perspective, we get the best of both worlds using the trap bar deadlift. We get the desirable upper body involvement of the deadlift, but the weight distribution of the squat with the movement firmly through the heels.

3. Power Clean & Press

The Power Clean & Press is a great movement for developing total body explosiveness. It’s impossible to do one slowly. To top it off, it engages and taxes almost every muscle in the body. As a result, this movement will help add slabs of muscle all over your frame. And the increases you’ll see in power and neuro-muscular coordination will make you a faster athlete too. What more could you want?

4. Pull Ups

A full, properly-executed set of pull ups is one of the best movements you’ll see in slapping on precious width and thickness to the back of a body.

The Latissimus Dorsi attach all the way along the spine. In other words, its one HUGE core muscle. And is key in pulling strength, overall trunk stability in pressing, posture and general longevity. Not that the Pull up solely relies on the Lats, the rest of the upper back comes in to play too. Real bang for your buck. Forget the lat pulldowns.

It’s also a 2-for-1 exercise in as much as varying the grip width, and  whether using a pronated or supinated grip, changes the emphasis on varying parts of the back. But thats an article for another day.

Form is crucial, each rep from a dead hang please. No pathetic half reps allowed.

5. Farmers Walks

Great overall body strength & conditioning movement. To reiterate what Ben Coker said here, they’re a great way to build the back, traps, legs, core and grip.

When you include farmers walks in a program, everything else can’t seem to help but go the right way. They’re an awesome, primal movement pattern that needs to be hit. Leave them out at your peril!Programming

Our crazed gunman then returns and demands:

“How do I put all of this together?”

Like this:
A. Complexes 3×8
B. Trap Deads 3-5rm max
C. Power Clean & Press 5×5
D. Pull ups 3x max reps
E. Farmers Walks 4x50m

Complexes are a great way to warm up the entire body for the rest of the session. 3 sets of 8 does nicely here.  With Trap Bar Deadlifts, we want to work up over as many sets as needed to a strong 3-5 rep max. Everytime we get 5 reps, we add weight the next session.

Similarly with the power clean and press, we aim for 5×5, adding weight from set to set until we can’t get 5 reps, plus these should feel light after the heavy deadlift. With Pull ups, we want to cause as much fatigue as possible to maximally stimulate the upper back, so we go to positive failure on each set. Finally, we hit 4 lengths of 50m with the farmers walk to fry what’s left of our shotgun pal.

Try the above for a great total body workout if you are short on time or just want to get back to basics. Perform twice per week and hit some basic conditioning like hill sprints 2 or 3 times per week on top and suddenly you’ve got a pretty decent program.

Wrap Up 

The reality is obviously that we don’t have to limit ourselves like this. But sometimes adding exercises doesn’t necessarily mean added results.As Albert Einstein said, “Everything should be made as simple as possible but no simpler.”

It’s always a useful exercise to go through your training and work out what exercises are really adding value to your program, and what is just there for the sake of it. Getting back to the basic, shotgun movements can be a great way to keep your training simpler and more effective. Sometimes less is more.

Building a Bad Ass Fighter – by Ben Coker

I have numerous associates that are involved in fighting sports and resultantly I am frequently asked about training programmes to help develop ‘specific conditioning’ for a fighter for upcoming fights. The physical demands of professional fighting are intense. Muscular strength, power and endurance are all crucial to success. It is clear that training must be aimed to increase all of these. How do we develop all of these at the same time? Well it isn’t as daunting as it first appears as I will explain.
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I don’t want to go into strength training in this article as the area that causes most confusion lies in developing ‘specific conditioning’ for a fight a.k.a. the muscular endurance. A side note: In terms of pure strength training for a fighter I feel success is obtained in just the same way it is for any athlete: include all the main compound movements; Squat, deadlift, row/chin up variation, overhead press, bench press. Do them heavy and do them fast, this means pure strength days and speed days.  ‘Specific conditioning’ is achieved by mimicking a fight by doing the anatomical movements that occur in a fight separated by no or short rest periods to develop the oxidative capacity of the muscles involved as well as developing cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. Cutting to the chase here are the exercises that i consider to give a fighter in training ‘bang for his buck’.
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Tornado ball
This exercise works all of the stabilising muscles of the torso as well as developing power from the hip. This movement mimics that of punching from the hip, developing the power in the legs and hip and then enabling it to be transferred through the torso by strengthening its stability.  (Hulse’s reference to it not being a conditioning exercise is in the context of the exercise alone. Used as one exercise in a circuit it can be used for conditioning whilst developing power).
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Renegade rows
This exercise would benefit a fighter who has mounted an opponent in an attempt to ‘ground and pound’. Through developing sagital, horizontal and frontal stability, this exercise will allow a greater transfer of power through the torso and thus delivery through the arm to the opponent.
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SA T-bar jerk press (1st exercise in video)
The first exercise shown here offers a unique movement that develops power in the arms, shoulders and especially the legs and hips. A great exercise to develop punching power using a straight arm…no ‘windmilling here’.
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Sandbag or Turkish get ups
Get ups are fantastic at strengthening and stabilising your body as you move from supine to standing. Lets face it no fighter wants to be stuck on his back and not have the strength and stability to be able to stand up when there is a external force attempting to pin him down.
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Barbell glute bridges
Glute bridges are a great exercises for developing power in hip extension which is key for developing punching power but more specifically enhancing the ability to throw an opponent of off you if you are supine and they get some wise idea about attempting to pummel your face in. Train this movement heavy and fast and you’ll be amazed at how easily you’ll be able to throw an opponent off of you!
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Burpees
This grandad of exercise still has its place. It develops eccentric strength and concentric power in the chest and triceps as well developing muscular endurance. It strengthens the core musculature of the torso and develops power and muscular endurance in the legs and glutes. If you can bang these out effortlessly even when weighted then you’ll have no problem springing up off the mat repeatedly, crucially getting to your feet quicker…which is where the fight is won.
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Battle ropes
This  fantastic exercise and its variations works the entire upper body strength, endurance and stability.There is a strong focus on your core, arms, grip, anaerobic and aerobic systems whilst remaining non impact. Even the legs and glutes can be worked when performing larger movements. These are also great for developing the rotator cuffs which are crucial for shoulder health when shoulder is exposed to extreme velocities
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Farmers walks
This exercise is overlooked for the many benefits it provides to the whole body in terms of strength, stability and conditioning. I wont delve into the exercise in further detail as it is the focus of an upcoming article. Just trust me when i say they are a must!
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Towel/ rope chins
Grip strength for a fighter is crucial when it comes to grappling! Not only will farmers walks help with that but towel/rope chins are fantastic at giving you an iron claw. For those who think outside the box try Towel T-bar rows too as an alternative.
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Sled Rows
These are great for developing grip, upper back strength and muscular endurance.They also force you to tighten up your complete abdominal and lumbar musculature to provide a stable platform. These are key to strong grappling.
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Bear hug carries
It’s all well and good having strong biceps, pectorals, lats, legs and glutes but they need to put to practice and trained in a functional way. Bear hugging a heavy bag or other large object and carrying it over a distance will have your arms and grip screaming, your back and chest pumping and your lungs burning! For the grapplers and wrestlers out there this is a must.
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Wrap up
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This is no means an extensive list but it gives exercises that I feel are great for developing a formidably conditioned fighter. Stay tuned for upcoming articles that delve more into further conditioning ideas. As an idea on how to create a decent circuit consider the following:
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Towel Chin ups – failure
Farmers walk – 25m
Renegade rows – 8 reps per side
Bear hug carry – 25m
Burpees – 20reps
Barbell glute bridges – 10reps
Tornado ball – 10 secs
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Remember these aren’t meant to be easy. Choose as many exercises as you wish, perform as many reps as you wish, rest as little as you can. Don’t get lazy. Push your limits. Enjoy.

Make the Most of It – by Jamie Bolton

Make the most of those days when the world is your oyster. Push them for all their worth.
The days when you walk into the gym and that 100kg press from last week feels that extra bit light. Milk it. Milk it for all its worth. Hammer yourself. Do more work

I’m a big believer in auto-regulatory styled training. Sure, have a structure. I think walking into the gym blind with no plan, is one of the biggest mistakes trainees make. But keep it loose and don’t take it as a hard and fast ‘rule’ of what you must and must only do.

If you walk in and had planned to work up to a top set in the squat of say 160kg for 3, but you get there and it feels light. Then go to town. Chances are you knew halfway on your ramp up to it that it may feel that way today. So adjust. Rep it out. Or add extra sets. Or keep ramping up to a new top set for 3. That’s how you smash PBs. That’s how you progress.

 

Make the most of the days when the world is your oyster

 

Your body is in a constant state of flux. It never stays the same. Nor is it predictable how it will really be ready to perform. Sure, you can periodise and plan all you like, but if you walked in and planned a lower volume day but you feel like you can dominate the world, then do you really think it’ll be optimal to stop short? Maximise the training effect that your body is willing to allow you to put it through. Take what your body gives you.

The reverse also applies. Some days you walk in, having planned a heavy session. Then you walk in, and the warm up sets feel a bit off and heavier than they should. Your grip feels a bit off. Your form is a little awkward. Then it might be wise to reconsider your goals for the day and adjust the volume downwards. What might be enough one day might be too much another. There’s no point in sacrificing form just to try and push a weight that’s just too much today. If its not there, it’s not there. Save the battle for another day.

Don’t take that as an excuse to take an easy ride. The point here is to look for physical cues not mental ones. Weights feeling lighter/heavier. Weights flying up faster/slower. Grip or form tighter or a bit off today. Not “I can’t really be bothered today” – that’s just weak and a sure fire way to make no progress.

I’ll quote Christian Thibaudeau of T-nation, as its one that bears repeating:

“The more you can train without compromising your ability to recover, the more you’ll progress”.

Take what your body gives you each day. If its there to be pushed a bit harder, do it. If its not – don’t. Simple.

Pull Heavy to Move Fast – by Ben Coker

There is a common misconception that lifting heavy weights will make you slow among sprint coaches. Many will stick to body weight and plyometric workouts, using only weights that are sub maximal and moving them fast if any weights are used at all. Lifting around 50-60%1RM and doing speed work isn’t wrong but it’s only one possible way to address the issue. 

When lifting heavy weights the nervous system is forced to recruit as many motor units as possible to move the weight. In sprinting, surely you want to have all of your fibres at maximum efficiency, ready to all contract at the same time for maximum force output. Now yes you can partially get this from trying to move a weight fast or indeed sprinting itself but there’s more. If you try to move an even heavier weight fast then your body is forced to recruit even more fibres. What I’m getting at here is the concept of motor unit potential. Have you ever noticed that when you’ve lifted a heavy weight when you release it and perform the same anatomical movement without the weight it feels extremely light? Your brain still thinks it needs all the fibres it had just recruited to do the movement. Simply put for a short period after lifting a weight all those fibres that were activated are on standby in case you have to perform the movement again.

This phenomenon only last a short time (seconds) so we must be quick. I’m aware that many track/gym facilities are substandard but if you have access to a sled or a lifting platform that is near a track then you’re sorted.

Approach one: Potentiate then perform – aka contrast sprints

Choose an exercise that requires hip extension and knee extension (the drive of sprinting) that allows for large weights to be lifted. I prefer squats, deadlift or sled pulls. Next set out a sprint distance you want to train over. Perform 2 repetition of the exercise at about 80-90% 1RM then get to the start line promptly and then sprint the distance. Why 2 reps? Well it takes about this time for your brain to fully recognise the force needed to move the weight. In a sense the first rep is ‘sluggish’ as the body wakes up and its the 2nd and even 3rd rep (if the weight isn’t too heavy), that the body produces most power as the relevant motor units are now all awake and firing together. If your pulling the sled/prowler simply choose a weight at about 80-90% 1RM then pull/push the sled/prowler for between 5-10m. It is important not to overdue it as the effect is lessened if fatigued! Remember we are activating not fatiguing ourselves here.

Plyometrics are used to accomplish similar results but they recruit fibres by quick lifting whereas lifting heavy recruits fibres by creating the need for many fibres to lift the weight. One must also remember that if one attempts a 1RM then by definition they are moving the weight as fast as they can, no matter how slow, it is at maximum speed! 

Approach two: Pure heavy pulling sessions mimicking sprinting

Here I am speaking specifically about the use of sleds and prowlers. Continued use of pulling heavy in a way that mimics sprinting means the body will eventually adopt and be able to pull a given weight faster over time. Now you’ll have to be mad to try and disprove that this won’t carry over into being able to propel your body weight faster if you’ve become accustomed to pulling a damn heavy sled at a worthy pace! It is worth noting that to pull a substantially heavy sled or prowler involves the person naturally getting into the correct or optimum position for the drive phase in sprinting! If you don’t quite simply the thing won’t move! So in using sleds and prowlers you are also grooving correct body angles and positions for sprinting as an added side benefit!

Wrap up
Not only do these exercises carry over into an immediate sprint, allowing one to groove quickness of limb movement but I speak from experience in saying that this approach also makes you faster in the long run. But if that isn’t enough then have a browse through the training methodologies & youtube pages of trainers like Joe Defranco, who are hugely successful in producing elite athletes year in year out and frequently use both techniques in their programmes. I’ll leave it at that.

Inspiration 10/03/11

Today we’ve got another selection of videos from the web to get your fired up about your training and sport.

This clip I feel encapsulates what it takes to be the best; the power of inner belief, going hard everyday, staying on your grind, rising to and overcoming the challenges.

 

For all you bodybuilders out there i don’t need to explain why this clip is immense!

 

Don’t dream, don’t you dare dream. That won’t get you anywhere!

 

Its you versus 2nd place pal…let’s see what you’ve got!

 

Until next time. Train hard. Train smart. Stay strong.

Interview with Adam Bishop – Midland’s Strongest Man 2010

Adam Bishop is an up and coming strongman and powerlifter. Amongst a strong and accomplished sporting history he recently obtained the title of MIDLANDS STRONGEST MAN U105 2010 and came in 5TH in the UK’S STRONGEST MAN U105 2010.


EK: Thanks for joining us today Adam. Can you give our readers a little background on yourself?
Adam: I’m a former professional rugby player (winger), and have been lifting weights for six years. I entered my first Open Strongman Competition in 2010 and came 10th out of 20 despite being the lightest.

EK: That’s pretty impressive. What made you want to get into Strongman?
Adam: I always watched Worlds Strongest Man (WSM) and other strongman competitions on the tv ever since I was young and wanted to have a go at it one day. I started posting on a strongman/powerlifting website called Sugden Barbell and ended up going over to a facility called the Container near Melton Mowbray. I found I was pretty good at a few events and it kinda snowballed from there to be honest.

EK: How do you get access to the specific training implements you need to train for strongman?
Adam: The facility at Melton Mowbray has equipment specially made for me and the guys I train with by Jason Talbot, owner of www.atlasstones.co.uk . He can make any weird implement we need to lift with.  I also personally own a small collection of implements which I train with.

EK: What kind of training split do you use when preparing for strongman events?
Adam: I train 4 times a week in the gym following Westside Barbell principles at the moment, which looks like this:
Monday – Max effort upperbody (log, axle, circus DB etc)
Tuesday – Max effort Lower body (Including Deadlift and squats)
Wednesday – AM Repetition upperbody PM Atlas stone lifting
Thursday – Dynamic effort Lowerbody (including speed squats and speed pulls)
Friday – REST
Saturday – Events training
Sunday – REST
It’s a pretty heavy schedule and I wouldn’t recommend it to others but my body seems to recover well so it works!

EK: That’s definitely intense, you must be having to get in some serious food to fuel all of that? How do you tailor it in the run up to an event?
Adam: Off season its calories calories calories for me as I find it very hard to put on weight otherwise. Obviously as I compete in the u105kg category I need to diet back down to around that weight. In the run up to a competition I’ll keep an eye on what I eat and just pretty much clean up my diet. I’m pretty simple when it comes to food.

EK: It’s nice to see someone who isn’t afraid to eat big! Do you put this together yourself or do you turn to a nutritionist?
Adam: I’m on my own with this really. I mean I have a relatively good understanding of nutrition from my rugby days so don’t seek any help from nutritionists.

EK: That’s good to hear. Moving on to competition day, how do you approach it?
Adam: It depends on the event really. Some events require relative calmness and concentration such as keg throwing or most overhead pressing where a lot of skill and technique is required. In other events, such as deadlifts, stone lifting and car flipping I tend to go a bit ape-sh** and get really worked up about the lift, I mean no sane human being would do that stuff would they!?

EK :  What do you do when something doesn’t quite run to plan?
Adam: I just try and stay calm. In one competition I dropped a railway sleeper on my head. Hardly ideal but you gotta just keep going in order to win.

EK: Ouch that’s got to hurt! What’s your favourite event?
Adam: Probably the Atlas stones with the Deadlift a close 2nd. I think atlas stones are the defining event in strongman, it’s always usually the last and most exciting.

EK: We’re sure everybody wants to know what they are, so could you rattle off your most impressive PBs for us
Adam: On the powerlifting movements I’ve deadlifted 320kg from the floor on a normal bar and pulled 360kg on the silver dollar Deadlift. Squatted 270kg in a belt and knee wraps. On strongman, I’ve pressed a 140kg axle overhead and lifted a 175kg atlas stone onto a platform.

EK: Impressive. What does the future hold for you?
Adam: The short term goal is to defend my Midlands Strongest Man u105 title this year and gain qualification for the UK’s Strongest Man where to be honest, I want to win. I came 5th last year in my first year in the sport, so now I want to take the title and go to the World’s! After achieving this I think I’ll try and gain some weight and look to compete more in the open weight category.

EK: Fantastic stuff. Thanks again for joining us and all the best for the upcoming contests!

Strong Flexible Hamstrings: An Athlete’s Best Friend – by Ben Coker

The hamstring group is comprised of 3 large powerful muscles that span the back of the upper leg; the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus. It is a bi-articulate muscle whereby it spans two joints, the hip and the knee. Resultantly the Hamstring acts as an agonist for knee flexion and hip extension and is a key force provider to a whole spectrum of athletic performances!

Bi-articulate muscles are more predisposed to strain due to the large forces due to contraction origination from both ends. Often the injury comes when the muscle is subject to high forces at the end range of motion (ROM). Sports that commonly cause hamstring injuries are sprinting sports that involve sudden accelerations, indeed 91% of hamstring injuries are incited through non contact mechanism and 57% occur when running. In soccer it is the most common injury, accounting for about 12% of all injuries. This is not surprising as in sprinting the hamstrings act at the hip to promote anatomical movement from flexion to extension whilst at the knee, extension to flexion. Sprinting involves acceleration and high force generation and as indicated above is done so when the hamstring is often near or at its end range of motion.

Witrouw et al (2003) (1) concluded from a study on 146 professional male soccer players that poor flexibility led to an increase hamstring strain rate. This make sense if we imagine the hamstrings as elastic bands. An old dry elastic band that has lost its stretch will often snap after a lesser force is applied to it in a stretched position. A new very stretchy elastic band can absorb more force or load through it before it reaches its yield point and snaps. Therefore, as in sprinting our hamstrings are often in positions at their end ROM, we want them to be able to tolerate more load (from sprinting) in those stretched positions. Therefore it is essential to regularly stretch your hamstrings to maintain and improve their suppleness and toleration of higher forces at their end ROM.

This leads on to my second point. For many athletes leg training is dominated by quadriceps focus often leading to an imbalance in their quadriceps:hamstring ratio. Crossier et al (2008) (2) found that 47% of 462 professional soccer players they analysed were imbalanced! This is a very important point as such imbalances drastically increase the chances of an athlete suffering from a hamstring tear.

The quadriceps and hamstrings work as an antagonistic pair and cutting to the point in sprinting when the quadriceps contract to extend the knee ready for another ground strike, the hamstring group has to act eccentrically to act as a brake to the force applied by the quadriceps. If this did not happen the large powerful quads would extend the knee so hard that it would hyper-extend at extreme forces…I think you get the picture.

If your hamstrings are not eccentrically strong enough to act as a sufficient brake to the quadriceps then they will simply be stretched too far as the knee hyper-extends and will tear. It is therefore crucial to emphasis eccentric overload of your hamstring in your leg training! Exercises such as negative focused Nordic raises, stiff legged deadlifts and ‘2 leg up 1 leg down’ hamstring curls are example resistance training remedies.

The generation of force at the end ROM comes not only from the eccentric braking of the hamstrings in response to the quadriceps force but also from the following hamstring rate of force development (RFD) or power in the concentric phase. Once the knee is fully extended out in front of the body and ground contact is made the hamstrings (along with the glutes) act to promote hip extension and knee flexion – driving the body forward. In sprinting this must happen very quickly and the quicker the contraction the more force there is involved. If the hamstrings are not adequately trained to contract both concentrically and extremely quickly immediately following eccentric contraction then they are susceptible to tear! Therefore leg training for athletes must include hamstring work about the hip and knee that involves developing RFD following an eccentric contraction. Controlled Romanian and stiff legged deadlifts (focusing on the quick transition from eccentric to concentric), Nordic raises (if your strong enough), sled-pull throughs and explosive leg curls are examples of resistance training remedies.

It is important to add that strength endurance training of the hamstrings should also be implemented. Why? Well if the hamstrings fatigue quickly then their eccentric braking action and RFD will decrease quickly and the chances of a hamstring tear increase! Thus improving hamstring muscular endurance as well as hamstring strength will decrease the susceptibility of hamstring tears.

A final factor in giving you some knowledge in how to prevent hamstring strain comes from a quote that I took a few years back from Eric Cressey’s and Mike Robertson’s DVD series ‘Building the Efficient Athlete’. They say that structure dictates function and function dictates dysfunction. ‘What the hell?’ you’re thinking. I’ll explain.

Firstly ‘structure dictates function’: If we know the structure of the limbs and the muscles then we can figure out there function. In the hamstring example we know that the hamstring muscle spans the back of the leg crossing the hip joint and knee joint, inserting on the pelvic girdle and the lower leg. Therefore we can now ascertain that the hamstrings must act to cause flexion at the knee and extension of the hip.

Secondly ‘function dictates dysfunction’: If we now know the function of the hamstring is to flex the knee and extend the hip then we can look at co-agonists and antagonistic pairs of those anatomical functions to find dysfunction in a movement pattern. For example, the glutes are the main hip extensors and so if they are weak we can get a dysfunction in hip extension and thus in the hamstrings i.e. the lack of force produced by the glutes cause hip extension force to be compensated for by extra hamstring exertion leading to possible hamstring tear! The solution may lie in strengthening the glutes and not strengthening the hamstrings as this could compound the scenario!

Wrap Up

The take home messages I would give is this, try to think about your training and performance in terms of structure and function. This can lead you to identify problem areas, prevent injury and also allow you to better train your muscles! Secondly your susceptibility to hamstring injury can be greatly reduced by;

  1. Eccentrically overloading your hamstrings in training
  2. Developing hamstring RFD
  3. Developing hamstring strength-endurance
  4. Stretching your hamstrings to make them better able to tolerate force at the end of ROM.

Remember, prevention is always better than cure, not least if it improves performance too.

References

(1) Witrouw et al (2003) Am J Sports Medicine 31: 41-46

(2) Crossier et al (2008) Am J Sports Medicine 36: 1469-79

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